COP7 was held in Marrakesh from 29 October 2001 to 9 November 2001 to determine the final details of the Protocol. The protocol also reaffirms the principle that developed countries must pay billions of dollars and provide technologies to other countries for climate-related studies and projects. The principle was originally agreed in the UNFCCC. One such project is the Adaptation Fund, established by the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The main objective of the Kyoto Protocol is to control emissions of major anthropogenic (man-made) greenhouse gases in a way that reflects underlying national differences in greenhouse gas emissions, prosperity and ability to reduce.  The Treaty follows the main principles agreed in the original 1992 UN Framework Convention.  Under the Treaty, Annex I parties that have ratified the Treaty must have met their greenhouse gas emission limitation commitments set for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012) by 2012. These emission control obligations are set out in annex B to the Protocol. The 8. In December 2012, following the 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference, it was agreed to extend the Protocol until 2020 and to set a date of 2015 for the preparation of a follow-up document to be implemented from 2020 (see lede for more information).  The results of the Doha negotiations met with mixed reactions, with small island states criticizing the package as a whole. The second Kyoto commitment period covers around 11% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions. Other outcomes of the conference include a timetable for the adoption of a global agreement by 2015, including all countries.
 At the meeting of the parties to the UNFCCC in Doha on December 8, 2012, the European Union`s chief negotiator, Artur Runge-Metzger, promised to extend the treaty binding the 27 European member states until 2020 until 2020 until an internal ratification procedure. The parties reported a high level of uncertainty regarding LUCF emissions, but overall there appeared to be only a small difference of 1.7% with and without LUCF. With LUCF, emissions amounted to 11.9 billion tonnes, without LUCF, total emissions amounted to 11.7 billion tonnes. On November 12, 1998, the United States signed the protocol, in part because the Clinton administration wanted to revive what was seen as some loss of momentum at COP-4. However, the treaty was not submitted to the Senate for approval in recognition of the S.Res resolution. 98, the 1997 resolution which highlights the disapproval of a treaty that did not contain legally binding obligations for developing countries. In the United States, ratification of treaties can only take place after they have been submitted to the U.S. Senate and approved by the U.S.
Senate. In 2001, at the beginning of his first term, President George W. Bush rejected the Kyoto Protocol, as mentioned above and discussed below, and US policy withdrew from formal negotiations on the protocol. One of the most controversial issues in the negotiations on the operation of the Kyoto Protocol was this issue of “complementarity” – reaching agreement on the proportion of a country`s commitments that could be met by these mechanisms in relation to national measures to reduce emissions within a country`s borders. The negotiations held in Bonn, Germany, in mid-2001 (COP-6 “bis” discussed below) resolved this issue with language suggesting that there would be no quantitative limit to credit that a country could claim through the application of these mechanisms, but that national measures should be an essential part of the efforts of each Annex B country, to achieve its objectives. Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) concluded on 11 December 1997 and committed industrialized countries to legally binding emission reductions of six “greenhouse gases”. The Protocol entered into force on 16 February 2005 and its emission reduction requirements are binding on the 35 industrialized countries that have ratified it; the United States withdrew from the Protocol in 2001 and has not ratified it. Following the publication of this report, which highlighted that a large amount of carbon can be stored in a variety of carbon sinks, including not only in forests, but also in soils, vegetation, pastures, etc., the United States presented a comprehensive proposal for the COP-6 negotiations to expand the level of acceptable carbon sinks. The Kyoto Protocol accepts in principle that a country`s forests — management practices, reforestation or afforestation — may be included in the accounting for net greenhouse gas emissions and their reduction. This would be important for the United States, as its vast land area and vast potential for increased carbon uptake due to changes in land management could significantly reduce the amount of emission reductions required by energy production.
In a submission to the UNFCCC Secretariat in late summer 2000, the United States proposed that the development of acceptable land-use change under the Protocol at COP-6 also include carbon sequestration in soil and vegetation. Responsibility of developing countries. The United States has always taken a firm position that the “meaningful participation” of developing countries in the commitments made in the Protocol is crucial both to the achievement of the treaty`s objectives and to its approval by the United States Senate. This reflects the demand made in Resolution S.Res. 98 to mid-1997 that the United States should not become a party to the Kyoto Protocol until developing countries are subject to binding emission targets. The U.S. government has also argued that success in dealing with the issue of climate change and global warming would require such involvement. The development bloc argued that the Berlin mandate – the mandate of the Kyoto negotiations established at COP-1 in 1995 – clearly excluded them from the new commitments of that protocol and that they continued to reject the emission ceilings of non-Annex I countries. Overall, the group of developed countries that had committed to a Kyoto target, i.e. Annex I countries excluding the United States, had a target of reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 4.2 per cent over the period 2008-2012 compared to the base year, which in most cases is 1990. :24 China, India, Indonesia and Brazil have not been forced to reduce their CO2 emissions.
The other signatory States were not required to implement a common framework or specific measures, but to achieve an emission reduction target for which they could benefit from a secondary market for multilaterally traded emission credits.  The Emissions Trading System (ETS) has allowed countries to host polluting industries and buy ownership of their environmental merits and virtuous models from other countries.  In 2001, a continuation of the previous meeting (COP6-bis) took place in Bonn, where the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, the proponents of the protocol (led by the European Union) managed to get the approval of Japan and Russia by allowing greater use of carbon sinks. Andorra, Palestine, South Sudan, United States and after their withdrawal on September 15. December 2012 Canada is the only Party to the UNFCCC that is not a Party to the Protocol. In addition, the Protocol is not applied to observers of the Holy See of the UNFCCC. Although the Kingdom of the Netherlands has approved the Protocol for the whole Kingdom, it has not deposited an instrument of ratification for Aruba, Curaçao, Sint Maarten or the Caribbean Netherlands.  The World Bank (2010) noted that the Kyoto Protocol had had little impact on reducing global emissions growth. The treaty was negotiated in 1997, but by 2006 energy-related carbon dioxide emissions had increased by 24%.  The World Bank (2010) also stated that the Treaty provided limited financial support to developing countries to help them reduce their emissions and adapt to climate change.  As structured in the 1997 negotiations, this treaty would commit the United States — if it ratified the Protocol — to achieve the goal of reducing greenhouse gases by 7% below 1990 levels over a “commitment period” between 2008 and 2012.
Due to the fact that the “sinks” that remove and store carbon from the atmosphere are counted, and because of other provisions discussed in this report, the actual reduction in emissions in the United States that would be needed to achieve the target has been estimated to be less than 7%. The United States (under former President George W. Bush) and Australia (originally under former Prime Minister John Howard) have not ratified the Kyoto Treaty.  According to Stern (2006), their decision was based on the absence of quantitative emission commitments for emerging economies (see also the 2000 section). Australia, under former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, has now ratified the treaty, which entered into force in March 2008.  1997 – In December, in Kyoto, Japan, the parties conclude the Kyoto Protocol, in which they agree on the broad outline of emission targets. .
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